The Turn and Mill Machine headlines the list of common machines found in woven fabrics. The name was derived from the turn-and-mills’ original name, which was originally intended for use in turning grain. These early models were rudimentary by today’s standards, but they were found to be highly useful in early manufacturing environments. These machines have a lot of similar characteristics with industrial shredders: the main difference being that these are intended for use in producing woven textiles.
The Turn and Mill Machine are a basic stepper with two rollers rotating on two axes at the same time, thus resulting in maximum production of small pieces of fabric and minimized waste. The machine operates by passing thread through a number of tiny holes, which are then turned by hand or automated machinery. The small particles of fiber or yarn are then picked up by spindles or a mesh screen. These fibers are then passed through a roller or spool to the milling machine, where they are spun, flattened and cut into threads. At this point, the desired fabric is ready to be produced, either pre woven or based on the user’s specification.
The Turn and Mill Machine run on electricity and are commonly operated as an electric milling machine. The most familiar Turn and Mill Machine designs are often the hand operated variety; however, many models can now be run on electricity by use of a transformer. Many modern day turn and milling machines use a variety of technologies to further reduce their power consumption and increase operating efficiency. Many models of these machines are equipped with devices that automatically detect power overloads and shut down until the problem is resolved. This is another way in which to further extend the life of the machine, as it allows for minimal repair bills.
In general, Turn and Mill Machines is powered by a variable-speed electric motor, which is controlled by the operator via a control panel. This control panel may include a keyboard, a graphic user interface, a timer, a tape drive, a motor driver, etc. Some machines also feature a spindle arm, which is a handle bar that rotates around a fixed vertical axis in relation to the spindle itself. The turning speeds of these types of machines are typically greater than 300 rpm.
In order to use the Turn and Mill Machine, special adapters are required for the spindle arm. These spindles generally connect to a vertical metal plate on the lathe, but they may also be connected directly to a table top. To prevent slipping when turning the spindle, the lathe head should be securely attached to the spindle with threaded fasteners. Some Turn and Mill Machine lathes are designed with a provision for slide-on hand tools, which allow the operator to place the tool over the spindle, turn it in a clockwise direction, and start turning. Other types of spindle arm include a T-shaped arm that fit into a T-shaped base, and a U-shaped arm that fit into a U-shaped base.
The turning process starts by depressing the workpiece to begin the turning motion, and then lifting the workpiece up to move it along the spindle. Turning centers generally have a gear in the middle of the spindle that allows the work to spin as the work revolves around the turning center. The most efficient turning centers will feature gears and bearings that allow the spindle to run continuously without any sudden stopping or slipping. When purchasing a lathe machine, be sure to inquire about its speed capability, turning center design, and the types of spindles and accessories that may be used with the machine.