動靜平衡 形塑創新的完美風暴

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精選文章 動靜平衡 形塑創新的完美風暴
先有「興趣」,然後「塞滿」
 

動靜平衡 形塑創新的完美風暴
文/廖志德
創新產品經常不是事先規劃可以得知的,對於意料之外的成功,我們要保持開放接納的態度善加運用,才能不負上天賜與的好運道。

每年春節大陸騰訊高管都有發紅包的習慣,2萬多名員工,準備起來可是煞費苦心,2013年11月,在騰訊內部召開的一場頭腦風暴會議裡,開發人員建議將實體大量紅包改為在微信(WeChat)上面發放,沒想到這個原本只是公司內部搶紅包的小活動,後來會成為騰訊相當關鍵的殺手級應用。

2015年的除夕夜,紅包搖一搖的總次數有110億次,最高峰達到1秒鐘1,400萬次,每分鐘紅包收發達10.1億次,這個數字是2014年除夕夜的4百倍。

面對2014年突如其來的大成功,微信紅包的產品負責人吳毅在微博上面這麼說:「昨晚忙微信紅包,沒空刷微博,早上起來發現議論紛紛,一些關於微信紅包的誇大傳聞和數字,實在讓我目瞪口呆。微信新年紅包其實是小團隊10來天的順手之作,我們的目的只是希望能為新年添加一些好友互動的氣氛和發紅包的樂趣。時間緊迫,很多細節未優化好,希望試用的朋友包涵,我們會繼續努力改進。」

隨手之作,隨意成功,此時可不能隨便因應,否則這個成功機運很快就會被競爭者所掠奪,開創新局者的漫不經心,使得跟隨者有可能迅速找到對應之策,扳回一成。對於小團體的奇襲成功,千萬要記得調動大部隊及大資源來擴大戰果,否則風水輪流轉,好運氣可能很快就會落到別人手上。

小團隊與大部隊連動出擊

在微信紅包滿天飛舞的帶動之下,騰訊微信支付有了與阿里巴巴支付寶相抗衡的底氣,有了分裂半壁江山的態勢,移動支付在中國本來支付寶是獨大的,沒有人可以與之相抗衡。騰訊藉由紅包這個載體,一邊連結人脈,一邊連結錢脈,巧妙地貫穿人與錢的任督二脈,贏得與阿里巴巴競逐市場霸主地位的契機。2014年,微信紅包偷襲成功,阿里巴巴算是夜半被劫營,驚呆了,此役形同被奪去防堵強敵的關中要塞。2015年春節,阿里巴巴有了防備,一時間雙方主帥強力動員、備好人馬與糧草,展開一場顧客歡天喜地的紅包大戰。

緊接著的兩年,阿里巴巴都投入大量的資源與騰訊競爭,展望未來幾年,每一年開春的紅包大戰都會有好戲上場。2015年,支付寶協同品牌廠商發出6億人民幣的紅包,其中現金超過1.56億人民幣,購物消費紅包約為4.3億人民幣,面對阿里巴巴的大軍壓境,騰訊除了採取同樣的聯軍作戰模式,發出超過5億人民幣的現金紅包(單個最大的紅包4,999元人民幣),以及30億人民幣的優惠券紅包,另一方面則通過央視春晚宣布全國同步搶紅包的大活動,使得氣氛Hi翻五湖四海。2016年,阿里巴巴砸下2.69億人民幣的高額廣告費擠掉騰訊,成為央視春晚發紅包的獨家合作夥伴,除夕當天光是5分鐘就達到677億次互動,累計總互動是1,808億次,遠遠地把騰訊創下的110億次紀錄拋在後頭。

一個小團隊的順手之作,竟然可以震撼中國移動支付的市場板塊,引動阿里巴巴的馬雲御駕親征,要求管理團隊2014年春節提前3天回公司上班,馬雲充滿無奈的指出:「一夜之間,各界都認為支付寶體系會被微信紅包全面超越。此次珍珠港偷襲計劃執行完美。幸好春節很快過去,後面的日子還很長,但確實讓我們教訓深刻。」

紅包炸醒馬雲,騰訊CEO馬化騰恐怕也被這「順手之作」嚇了一跳,未來好幾年這兩位馬領導恐怕遇到春節都不好過,農曆新年,是全球華人歡度團圓的日子,現在同時是支付寶和微信支付兩名選手每年一度較量的好日子,身為執行教練的馬雲與馬化騰當然不能閒著,賽前準備、賽中指導、賽後檢討可是必要的功課,就這3年紅包大戰的整體成績而言,騰訊是小勝有所得,不過阿里巴巴回擊的速度及力道實在不容小覷。

創新往往來自小團隊的新思維,新思維造就新未來,騰訊的成功就在於允許小團隊擁有靈活進行試驗的空間,一旦取得成功的戰果,後面的人馬及資源就會快速的跟進,否則面對阿里巴巴如此善於調整步伐、快速反擊的太極高手,騰訊或許可以成功的偷襲一次,接著如果不能氣沉丹田、扎穩腳步、重拳迎戰,後續恐怕只有一路挨打的份。

大創新開始是不起眼的小點子

拳王阿里有2個特質,腳步靈活、華麗如飛舞的蝴蝶;出拳厚重,穩健如怒吼的大金剛,行動輕盈者出拳通常無力,穩如泰山者通常遲緩,能夠同時具備兩種矛盾的特質相當不容易。創新贏家的致勝訣竅是融合靈活與厚重的資源組合,同步展現快速回應與體量巨大的行動能量。

小團隊的優點是靈活有彈性,但是缺乏強大的資源與力量,大企業的好處是擁有豐厚的財務及人員後盾,但是往往回應市場的速度緩慢。小是左手,大是右手,能夠左右開弓的創新戰隊比較有機會在市場上脫穎而出。

創新求勝的秘密就在於整合小團隊及大組織的個別優勢,兩種不同的創新力量有可能同屬一家公司,例如:微信紅包就是騰訊子公司財付通的新產品、新嘗試,不同的創新優勢更有可能分屬不同的公司,經由連結、聯盟、代工、合併、創投等手段,可以將不同的優勢、特點與技能融合在一起和諧運作。

貝寶(PayPal)這個初創時的小團隊,就是靠著創投的大資源才有機會變身為移動支付的領導廠商,如果沒有龐大資金的挹注,體質薄弱的小企業是很難度過經濟寒冬的,PayPal取類似發紅包的行銷策略,贏來巨大的用戶基數,然後從顧客的交易中收取小額的手續費。

1999年秋天,PayPal的電子郵件支付系統運行良好便捷,但是使用者增長的速度太慢,在營運成本不斷往上升高的情況下,PayPal至少要有1百萬名用戶才能維持下去,在苦無對策之際,他們決定付錢獎勵註冊的客戶,只要加入就能得到10美元,這個策略果然奏效,貝寶的使用者從此呈幾何級數快速增加。時至今日,撒錢吸引消費者註冊成為使用者幾乎已經成為互聯網的慣例,共享經濟的標竿企業「優步」(Uber)同樣靠著補貼司機的方式高速成長,說穿了紅包大戰就是補貼大戰的新形態玩法,網際網路的世界同樣遵循著進化論的成長原則。

完美風暴剛開始只是一個小小的熱帶氣旋,超級強烈颱風莫蘭蒂唯有不斷吸收來自熱帶海洋的能量,才有可能形成龐大的摧毀力量,熱帶漩渦的進化需要能量,創新概念及產品的進化同樣需要能量。颱風表面看起來狂亂不受拘束,現實上颱風的路徑大致上是可預測的,而且越是強烈颱風它的颱風眼越是明顯。企業追求創新也得遵循同樣的自然規律,要從小開始,要給能量,要有成長的演化路徑,要有明確主題引導的颱風眼。

千萬不要小看西太平洋的小氣旋,它有可能是百年難得一見的強烈大颱風;千萬不要輕忽小人物的小點子,它有可能成就上千億美金的超級大市場。

但是人們往往缺乏眼光,不能從長期演進的角度來判斷事物後續的發展,尤其是瞬息萬變的自然及市場環境。誰知道有點黏有點不太黏的黏膠,後來有機會發展成1千億美金的巨型產業,Post-it的點子整整用了10年才成功上市;誰能預料到一個把客廳租給陌生人的笨點子,有機會成長為3百億美金的大公司,目前估值已經超越希爾頓酒店集團,給一個不斷遭到創投拒絕的蠢點子10年光陰,成就今天Airbnb的光輝歲月。

自由與紀律均衡的創新活動

想要在創新的領域有所成就,最重要的是不要輕視小點子與小團隊,不要妄下定論,不要隨意封殺第一眼不太對盤的想法。給予相對寬放的空間很重要,給予長期演化的時間很重要,如果3M沒有提供員工15%的自由時間,就沒有今天的便利貼。包容失敗,鼓勵創新,就有可能為公司帶來意料之外的大成功。

然而,自由不能是毫無限制的,管理不當的創新活動經常為組織帶來負面的效應:技術布局鬆散,產品組合混亂,整合作業破碎,決策行動緩慢,最嚴重的問題是創新活動與市場需求脫節。混沌不是失控,而是張力與壓力的同步存在,是在不和諧的狀態下形成和諧,是在自由與紀律之間追求均衡。

狂亂不拘的創意氣旋,穩固不動的創新主軸,回應市場的演化路徑,這是企業進行創新求勝時必須遵守的3個基本原則。善於創新的團隊有時就像孫悟空,他們雖然擁有七十二變的超強動能,但是缺點是不遵守組織規範,自行其事,好奇心太強,無法專注於創新的取經之路,導致產品開發節奏缺乏緊迫性,造成研發資源的大量浪費。

卓越的領導者要有緊箍咒,但不要成為好壞不分的唐僧,管制不能太緊,也不能太鬆,要適度規範過度氾濫的創新活動,避免資源排擠的效應,造成有前景的項目缺少足夠的人員及資金的支持,但是又不能管控得過於緊實,使負責產品開發的創新孫悟空綁手綁腳、畏首畏尾,無法積極實現個人的夢想。至於如何拿捏真的沒有固定的答案,一方面要和市場需求進行匹配,一方面要兼顧資源在產品組合上的合理分配,並且根據內外部環境變化進行隨時調整。

3大要件強健創新活動

想要形成結構強健的有益創新活動,我們需要在變動與穩定、發散與收斂當中追求適切的均衡,並且同步滿足下面3個基本要件:

1. 沒有變異就沒有創新,沒有引進新的元素就不可能創造多元豐富的商業形態,組織要包容不同的想法,允許員工相當大範圍的自由發揮、嘗試與失敗,在矛盾辯論中激發出新的點子,在靈活彈性中設計出符合顧客需求的解決方案。

2. 然而,由於組織資源的有限性,進行毫無秩序、永無止境的創意活動是不可行的,這會使得公司陷入雜草亂生的無效率狀態,經過一段時間的創意發散,經理人要適時引導資源投入較具前景的創新原型,就像優秀的農夫往往善於選種及梳果一樣,同樣的企業也要選擇好的點子,摘除遠離市場價值的創新活動。

3. 因此,想要從事有成效的創新活動,有時要狂亂不拘地進行創意思考,有時卻要穩住陣腳然後朝正確的方向前進,創新是摸著石子過河,是一個不斷思辨的學習過程,允許員工對點子進行較長時間的探索,創新活動必須和顧客一起演化,和競爭者一起演化,與時俱進的引進新的元素與觀點,原先看起來不怎麼樣的點子會帶來耳目一新的驚艷。

回應市場需求不代表完全聽從顧客的,而是要在有所變有所不變之間,滿足連顧客也沒有意識到的潛在需求,卓越企業總是在矛盾中追求均衡的發展。日本7-11就是這樣做的,他們在對便利性堅持不變的同時,不斷引進讓顧客感到期待和意外的驚喜提案,朝向新的角度推出令人意料之外的產品與服務。

擁有相同的目標很重要,但是摸索未來帶給消費者新鮮感同等重要,為了創造前所未有的新價值,日本7-11前任董事長鈴木敏文在總部設立一支被稱為「店舖創新團隊」的機動部隊,這個團隊由20至45歲的新人與中堅幹部組成,他們通過對各種不同事物的觀察,試著從中摸索出未來便利商店的圖像,店舖創新團隊擁有隨心所欲開發新產品的特權,鈴木敏文對公司管理層發出這樣的指示:「你們有任何想法也絕不能對創新團隊說出口。」其目的就是要避免受到傳統經驗的影響,完全放手讓他們去創造與過去截然不同的營運模式。

善於開創新局的領導者收放自如,面對如同孫悟空這樣的創新團隊,一方面要放寬對於他們的約束與管制,以擺脫過去經驗的影響與干預,一方面要要求他們用心聚焦於顧客價值上面,如此才能隨時、隨機應對市場環境的變化,同步滿足3大要件,形成創新的完美風暴。(本文作者為國泰安創業導師)

【本文出自《能力雜誌》2016年10月號;訂能力電子雜誌;非經同意不得轉載、刊登】

先有「興趣」,然後「塞滿」
撰文/劉威麟

一位朋友,原本閉塞又害羞,和他聊天,聊不上兩句。因為同樣在一個專案裡面,熟了,才知道他人其實蠻有趣的,但他就是有一個障礙,沒辦法和陌生人閒聊。

最近再次遇見他,嚇了我一大跳,竟然,他變、得、超、多、的!

他變成非常會講話、很愛social,到現場只見他將所有人打點得好好的;大家又吃又喝,到了晚上10點多,我已經非常疲倦,他還是興致盎然、完全不累的樣子。散會後,我和他留下整理東西。不禁問他:「喂,你怎麼變這麼多?是什麼讓你改變的?參加了心靈團體?報名口才訓練班?還是遭逢什麼重大變故?讓你整個人變得這麼『愛講話』?」他淡淡地說:「就是⋯⋯讓自己開始喜歡啊!」「你以前不是最討厭和人聊天,怎麼會開始『喜歡』它呢?」我好奇地問。「不能推掉,『只能』喜歡它啊。」他笑說。

突然我領悟了,沒錯,不能推掉的,你明明知道,沒有它,就沒有未來,這時候,唯一的一條路,真的就只剩下這一條──想辦法開始「喜歡」它。你可以強迫自己去「做」它,但效果不會好;你可以勉強自己去「執行」,但自己會反抗。這時候,轉個念,開始「喜歡」,然後就再也不必傷腦筋,它自己就會開始動了。當你開始擅長,感受到自己「也不賴」,會更喜歡,喜歡之後,又會更擅長,於是,這部分就越做越棒了。

「那,」我又問這位朋友:「你是怎麼開始喜歡和陌生人聊天的?」他說,有很多方法,其中之一,就是感受到認識新朋友的新鮮感,他說,以前的恐懼,就轉換成有趣了。再來,是感受到和新朋友對話,可以學到很多事情,這樣就抱著學習的心情,又更喜歡和陌生人講話了。最後,再了解到新朋友可以使明天更不一樣,帶來一些驚喜,且無論經營人生或職涯,多認識對自己總是好的。自此,真的非常非常喜歡和陌生人說話了。

自從摸出「喜歡」的原理之後,我這位朋友好像變得很開朗,因為他什麼事都以「喜歡它」去解決。於是他真的喜歡他的一切,從他的朋友、他的工作、他的住家、他每天生活、還有他的鄰居、他的女朋友,以及他女朋友的所有朋友⋯⋯。原來,喜歡就是「成功之鑰」──不擅長的事就不會喜歡,喜歡之後就會開始擅長。

有興趣,然後塞滿

至於工作效率要如何提升,我個人認為,應該以「二分法」來視之。首先,不喜歡這份工作的人,要先想辦法「喜歡」這份工作。其次,已經喜歡這份工作的人,就要想辦法在有限的時間內塞入「更多」的工作!

先別急著說這樣的二分法對或不對,假設它是對的,那麼「提升工作效率」就變成一個很直接的事了,只剩兩件事要做:1. 開始「喜歡」你的工作。2. 在你每天的上班時間裡,想辦法「塞越多工作」。

你說,不對啊,工作的前後順序呢?最佳工作時段呢?時間計畫呢?別傻了,那些都是太過於造作的思維,是給顧問賺錢的藉口,我認為工作效率就只要兩件事:「喜歡」,和「塞滿」。

慢跑的時候,特別有這樣的領悟。跑步是一件不容易讓自己喜歡的事,開始跑之前,總要經過一些心理建設,說服自己開始喜歡跑步。跑著跑著,會想要停下休息,這時候要說服自己繼續維持跑著的狀態,千萬不能休息!直到受不了了,腳步停了下來,這下才休息一下,走著走著,早晨清風拂面吹來,真是涼爽、好暢快的一天,這時候很想就這樣一路慢慢的「散步」回家!但,休息不到一分鐘,我告訴自己,不行,應該立刻再動身往前跑、往前跑!

寫作的時候,亦有這樣的領悟。在忙碌的時候想辦法強迫自己寫作,真的不是一件快意的事,開始寫之前,總要經過一些心理建設,告訴自己要喜歡去寫這一篇文章;當我開始寫了,胡亂寫了一個大概,也想停筆休息了,這時候,我卻告訴自己:不能休息!但我也不會讓自己再繼續寫,而是回過頭來改一改前面的文章,這裡加一個字,那邊減一個字⋯⋯。

太注重規畫反失去效率

當我們今天有10樣事情要做,1到10依序排列出來,肯定一看就很痛苦,那麼,我們首先先讓自己喜歡做這些事情,只要一點點的喜歡,就可以開始動手了,先完成1、2、3⋯⋯做不下去了,就別做「4」,而是直接跳到7,跳到8,隨便做一下下,見到又做不下去了,就再跳回1、2、3將它們做得更好,再繼續做4、做5。太注重時間巧妙「規畫」的人,反而沒有運用到時間,時間不斷溜走,人的情緒不斷變化,我們的際遇甚至每天都不一樣,需要好好規畫的並不是「時間」本身,而是「你」這個人。只要給自己的工作是正確的,又有心要努力直衝,剩下的就是想辦法將時間「塞滿」,你就可以成為一個工作效率高於他人的超級第一名。如果一開始就不喜歡做這份工作,那麼還是快點將它砍掉,不然你無法努力以這工作填滿你的時間,工作效率不會太高,影響自己的前途。

誰喜歡工作?誰不喜歡將時間儘量花在玩樂上?但帶來的結果,就是工作效率面臨瓶頸,無法再提升,這時候,只有強迫自己「喜歡」,然後強迫自己「塞滿」時間做它,只要你願意如上做了,情緒和興趣也會跟著回來,這時候會發現工作的越來越順暢,每天快樂像小鳥。

做得越多心情越佳

根據研究,職場上的人們,對自己的工作充滿動力,不見得是因為「錢多、事少、離家近」,而是他們不斷感受到一種「發自內心的成就」(intrinsic)。哈佛商學院從7家企業挑出238位上班族做了一個實驗,要他們每天寫工作日誌,並且寫下他們當日的心情是好還是壞、工作動力是高還是低,在研究單位收集了1萬2千份這樣的日誌,交叉比對後有了意外的發現。猜猜看,讓工作人心情最好的,是哪一種日子呢?

答案揭曉,並不是工作最「少」的日子,而是「做最多事情」的日子。

換句話說,你可以想像,星期一你被交付很難的工作,必須本週完成,星期二你開始從零做起,星期三你開始加速做,星期四你來不及了,所以趕工做、但進展很快且即將完成,星期五你終於完成了並交付出去、下午可以大喘一氣休息去,請問,星期一到五,哪天的心情最好?答案會是「星期四」,而不是「星期五」,就是這個意思。

這份研究報告用詞很令人玩味,它說,人們會工作愉快,是因為人們「被允許得到進步」(allowed to make progress)。進步是所有老闆都希望的,但有多少老闆是刻意的「允許」大家都有同樣的「進步」的感覺?說不定,那是對自己「自我感覺良好」的「錯覺」,但那種錯覺,就是會讓自己對工作充滿動力。文中指出,企業要讓每個員工都能「自我感覺良好」,必須:

1. 將大工作化成「小工作」:將每個大目標分拆成非常明確的「小目標」,讓大家天天都有追逐到的感覺。

2. 凡走過必留下成就:這些小目標,無論成功或失敗,無論準時或延遲,都是一個成就──所有的事情都會帶來成就感。

動力來自「自我感覺良好」

一般人對「工作狂」的理解是,他們沒有生活,只有工作,因為一般人覺得工作絕對不像度假,對它感到狂熱的人,一定是認知有偏差。這就好像大家總覺得藥是苦的,很難吃,你卻特別喜歡吃苦藥,你一定有問題?

不過,這麼多行業,永遠都有一些工作狂在其中自得其樂。為何在9成5以上工作者眼中這個「為了糊口飯吃」的工作,對於僅佔5%以下的「工作狂」來說,反而變成了興趣,變成了人生的一切?各行各業的工作,共通讓5%的人「發狂」並喜愛它們的共同原因是什麼?答案是:他們從工作中得到「成就」。

換句話說,若你不愛你的工作,有兩種可能性:

1. 你可以在其他地方得到更大的成就:這是最健康的方式,畢竟,工作雖然有錢賺,但它依然不是一個最健康的環境。如果你平常愛打網球,在打球的過程中,得到更大的成就感,那麼你的人生,建築在球場上面,真的是很棒的。

但更有可能的是:

2. 你尚未體驗過什麼叫「天天都在成就」的快感:這是我在面試的過程中一直感受到的,每人的家庭成長環境不同,自兒時開始,有些人的確比較少體驗過「成就」,一直以來,總是在被壓迫之下,勉強的一步一步往前進,直到工作還是如此,那麼,當然是注重非工作的快樂,但那種快樂,並不會源源不絕。

由於公司的成長,我開始固定待在「管理職」,然後逐漸發現自己不是非常快樂,因為我從管理者的工作中,找不到很大的成就。可能是我做得不夠好,但,當我開始自行處理一些事情,甚至包括接公司的電話、接觸客戶、親自測試、自己看程式⋯⋯我迅速找回了工作的樂趣。

我告訴一些面試者,我開這間公司,就是照著我的興趣開的,它的所有面向、所有職位,我都很有興趣「自己做」,能在這邊工作真是愉快每一天,但你有找到讓你成長的工作嗎?工作動力,來自「自我感覺良好」,一切在於自我的感覺,而這種良好感覺是很主觀的、或許只有「自爽」,但它的確是藏在每個有趣工作背後的關鍵,而你找到了嗎?

【本文出自《能力雜誌》2016年10月號;訂能力電子雜誌;非經同意不得轉載、刊登】

 

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