葉銀華/南韓親信干政事件的啟示

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名人堂電子報
2016/11/04 第1051期 | 訂閱/退訂 | 看歷史報份
 

名人觀點

葉銀華/南韓親信干政事件的啟示
聯合報/葉銀華
南韓總統朴槿惠因為親信崔順實涉嫌干政和貪腐(報導稱為閨密門,本文稱為親信干政事件),正面臨二○一三年上台以來最嚴峻的政治風暴;而且愈演愈烈,不僅民調大幅下跌,而且遭到數萬民眾要求下台的危機。

崔順實被控修改過總統講稿,還接觸過公務文件與事務,例如:外交政策文件、總統府人事安排,甚至是南北韓統一願景藍圖;而且涉嫌利用跟朴槿惠的關係,強迫大財閥捐款給她掌控的兩個基金會,並傳出設立海外人頭帳戶,進行挪移資金。另外,崔順實的女兒,因其勢力得以走後門進入名校梨花女子大學,造成該校超過百名師生集體抗議,校長已因此引咎辭職。相關干政、違法、特權情事,持續被揭發中。在此同時,朴槿惠也批准秘書室主任等多名總統秘書的辭呈;而執政黨更決定要求朴槿惠成立「中立內閣」,任期剩下一年多的朴槿惠已提前跛腳。

上述親信干政事件並非特例。探究亞洲部分國家之貪腐事件,關鍵角色是這些政府都有對總統或總理有莫大影響力的人,但未進入行政體系或是僅以機要任命!這些人可以影響重大人事安排、政策,但卻未接受監督,亦不用負責任,形成容易被尋租者、尋求特權者,以合法、灰色手段籠絡,這是相當恐怖的事。

另外,根據觀察亞洲這些出問題的政府,治理出現問題還有一種型態,是最高執政者為了創造短期政績,以利選舉宣傳,傾向在總統府或總理府設有一群由最高執政者授權的親信,直接指揮行政體系。最高執政者採用上述制度原本立意甚佳,單純為了提升政府效率,然而最高執政者因為能力或者時間有限,無法監督此一親信體系,久而久之讓原本行政體系相信這些親信代表總統、總理意志。倘若一個非直線體系,凌駕政府文官制度,又追求短期目標,則所掌握權力甚大,又可逃避制衡機制(或者制衡機制自動萎縮),則有可能陷入權力腐化的地步。

南韓總統親信干政事件的啟示,首先,就是我一直強調國家治理的基本原則:有影響力者必須納入政府體系,而且不能逾權;未入政府者,掌權者不能賦予影響力。亦即,最高執政者將其信任之諮商、規劃人士,皆納入公務體系,而且不能授予超過職位的權力,讓權責相符能夠實現。

其次,必須尊重文官體系。根本而言,政府體制原本即存在「制衡機制」,任何決策有一定的程序,雖然被批評綁手綁腳,但是卻能規範官員與降低違反法制與公平的可能性。政府官員體系有政務官與事務官,前者是隨執政黨更替,執行對人民的承諾事項,落實責任政治;後者則是注重文官體系與專業幕僚的養成,並兼顧長期政策的一致性。而採用親信文化會傷害文官體系,也會損及政府體制。

最後,期盼最高執政者杜絕親信文化,除了涉及外交、國防、國家安全,其他事項授權行政團隊;而最高執行者,轉而站在制高點,監督行政團隊。倘若還是存在不受法治監督的親信文化,則命運的輪迴,下次又是慘澹的下台背影。(本文作者為交通大學財務金融研究所教授)

《奇異博士》的導演竟然是……
由班乃狄克康柏拜區領銜主演的《奇異博士》,讓人百思不得其解的地方,就在於本片的導演,竟然是長期拍攝恐怖片的史考特德瑞克森,究竟漫威影業想要透過導演做出什麼突破,亦或是葫蘆裡賣著什麼藥呢?

Korea直飛大邱 發現韓國旅遊新魅力
去過首爾,聽過釜山,你知道大邱在哪裡嗎?!比起其他韓國大城,大邱沒有這麼觀光化,旅遊起來也格外輕鬆自在,非常值得放入說走就走、即刻出發的旅遊名單中。

 

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