李清志/寶可夢的場所精神

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名人堂電子報
2016/10/28 第1046期 | 訂閱/退訂 | 看歷史報份
 

名人觀點

李清志/寶可夢的場所精神
聯合報/李清志
建築現象學家諾伯舒茲(Christian Norberg-Schulz)在他的著作「場所精神/邁向建築現象學」一書中,提到所謂的「場所精神」(Genius Loci),根據羅馬人的信仰,每一個獨立的個體,都有其自己的精靈(或靈魂),這種精靈(Genius)或守護神靈(Guaraian spirit)賜予個人或場所生命,自生至死伴隨人和場所,同時決定他們的特性或本質。

二次大戰之後,現代主義的建築與都市規畫大行其道,但是那些原本迷人的城市與街道空間卻逐漸喪失,有如靈魂的失落一般,人們逐漸被汽車驅趕離開街道,而設計規畫不良的城市空間,也讓人害怕厭惡而逐漸離開街道,諾伯舒茲將此現象稱為「場所的淪喪」(The Loss of Place)。他認為建築師與都市規畫者應該重建場所,找回失落的「場所精神」,讓城市居民重新回到街道與開放空間裡,這也成為後來都市設計規畫者的使命。

有趣的是,寶可夢(Pokemon Go)與「擴增實境」(AR)的技術,竟然讓人們一夕之間,戲劇性地回到街道,讓無趣的開放空間重新擠滿城市居民,甚至那些醜陋幼稚的變電箱設備,突然也變得有趣起來!寶可夢怪獸有如諾伯舒茲「場所精神」理論中的場所精靈(Genius)一般,重建了城市空間的迷人特質,同時也吸引了城市居民回到開放空間與街道。

寶可夢精靈真的就像是「場所精靈」,它們根本看不見,但是對於寶可夢玩家而言,卻是無比真實的存在,大家手上拿著手機神器四處遊走,就可以找到躲藏在不同場所空間裡的寶可夢精靈,慢慢地,寶可夢玩家對於城市空間有更多的認識,同時也更多地去探索這個城市陌生的角落。

寶可夢的創新與突破,恐怕連未來學專家過去都不曾想到過,「第三波」作者艾文托佛勒過去雖然曾經在著作中多次提到「虛擬實境」(VR)將對人類生活帶來的重大影響,但是卻不曾對「擴增實境」(AR)有太多描述;而寶可夢現象恐怕也會讓都市設計學家凱文林區(Kevin Lynch)跌破眼鏡,凱文林區在「城市意象」(The Image of the City)一書中,將城市意象分為「地標」、「節點」、「區域」、「邊緣」、「通道」等五個城市元素,有趣的是,這些城市元素正好都是寶可夢遊戲中寶可夢道場與補給站的設置地點。

雖然有許多人對寶可夢遊戲有很多抨擊,認為寶可夢遊戲創造了一大群城市喪屍,雖然在公共開放空間遊走,卻不與他人互動來往,只顧自己低頭玩遊戲;但是不可否認的是,寶可夢遊戲讓許多沉迷電腦桌前的宅男宅女們,開始走出繭居生活,那些沙發馬鈴薯電動遊戲迷,也可以擺脫不運動的惡習,每天晚上吃飽飯走出家門,到城市街道、開放空間散步抓寶。

我觀察到許多人的下班生活開始有所改變,晚餐後大家不再呆呆地看八點檔連續劇,父親開始帶著兒子外出抓寶,老夫老妻則在公園興奮討論誰抓到的寶可夢厲害;也看到許多年輕人在公園道場周邊,或坐或臥,閒話家常,手機上顯示的則是櫻花花瓣四散飄落的繁華景象,這樣的城市盛況,在我們的社會電視普及之後,已經很久不曾見過了!

寶可夢的「擴增實境」技術,縫合了現實與虛擬之間的鴻溝,讓虛擬空間與現實世界接軌,藉著「擴增實境」的寶可夢遊戲,原本沉淪的城市空間,竟然開始得到某種重生的救贖。

(作者為實踐大學建築設計系副教授)

當孩子的情緒風暴來臨,該怎麼辦?
人是情緒的動物,會感到開心、快樂,自然也會有生氣、悲傷等負面情緒來襲,當孩子遭遇心理壓力時,該如何適當的表達、抒解情緒呢?透過討論,幫孩子找到抒發的管道,並以平常心來看待每種情緒來臨,學習與它和平共處。

先別管大蜘蛛了!你有聽過夏康嗎?
夏康原是中南美洲墨西哥一帶的舞曲,在歐洲第一波地理大發現後,這些地區成為西班牙殖民地,音樂也在十六世紀隨之傳入西班牙,「夏康」之名據現有資料指出,應是來自巴斯克語。

 

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